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2018医学考博英语听力的高分解题技巧

来源:互联网 时间:2017/9/5 17:44:39

   在医学考博的备考中,听力占据试卷总分值的30%,因此对于听力的练习考生一定要重视,而且医学考博因其专业性的原因,其试卷中会涉及到很多的医学医学相关的话题,涉及到的医学词汇也相对专业和复杂。其中英语听力中的对话会出现,这就要求考生的词汇积累的量一定要达到。

  听力的练习是有一定的技巧的,在平时学习的学习中,应对照词典音标,有意识的培养自己对词形长、难记忆的医学词汇的辨音能力。例如:

  ◇Last summer I was working in Washington,D.C. as an intern at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.

  ◇I'm Dr.Hall,a dermatologist,and tonight I will be speaking about the effects ofstress on the skin.

  ◇In fluenza often strikes people who are overtired,stressed-out and not eating nutritious foods.

  在阅读中,有些专业医学词汇对于我们医学考博的考生来说并不生疏,但往往成为我们听力理解的障碍。我们平时学习英语都有这样的体会,能看懂的东西不一定能听懂,在大脑中没有建立起相应的听觉形象。所以考生在复习时要注意这类词汇的把握。这类词还有:

  achromatopsia n.色盲

  acne n.痤疮,粉刺

  ague n.疟疾;寒战

  请考生据此,并结合个人的实际情况,注意将词汇分类总结,可参照“医学博士英语统一考试词汇表”进行归纳复习。

  比如我们可以这样分类总结:①常见疾病名称:measles麻疹;otitis耳炎;meningitis,脑(脊)膜炎;②医院设施及设备、工具:gauze纱布;ward病房;③诊疗方案:percuss叩诊;palpation触诊;tomography.断层X线照相术;④组织器官:waist腰,腰部;ventricle心室;retina视网膜;⑤医学分科名称:microbiology微生物学;orthopedics骨科学。

  文本规律(语法特点)

  听力训练的一个阶段是听懂“语法”,也就是听者在长期的语言学习中对句子、篇章的结构形成的印象。在听力测试时,这种印象会帮助我们预知下文可能出现的句式和情景逻辑。而这种能力的形成无疑要依赖于对句中和篇章中的过渡关联词的准确把握。

  英语是一种表音文字,其语音、构词或者造句都不同于汉语。学习英语必须将感性认识提高到理性认识,并利用语言的规律性来指导语言的实践。语法是语言的组织规律。掌握一定的语法知识,对于正确理解语意,提高英语听力水平大有好处。通常看不懂句子的结构就无法了解句意,更不用说听懂复杂的长句了。没有语意方面的知识,就无法意识到篇章内的不同组成部分之间在意义上的联系。

  注意篇章中的关联过渡词,也就是把文章包含的几个意群连接起来的词或短语,用英文表示为"organization words",比如:first,then,next,after that,and finally。章就是靠着这些关联过渡语句,形成了自己独特的风格,若掌握了这些规律,就可以在听短文时做到心中有数,能很好地顺应作者的逻辑。

  例文1:

  Now that l have extracted your tooth,l want to give you some words of advice.Remember that this is surgery. You need to go home and rest for the rest of the day. You shouldn't do our regular work. Since you're an adult,it might take you longer to heal than if you were a child.

  The numbness will wear off after a few hours,and if it's painful after that,you should take two aspirins.

  Now,the most important,thing to remember is to apply ice to your cheek immediately when you get home.

  This will keep the swelling down.

  You can use an ice bag or put chopped ice in a towel.

  Hold it to your cheek over the extraction area for 20 minutes,and then take it off for 20 minutes.Keep this up for 4 or 5 hours.

  Secondly,don't rinse your mouth today.

  Tomorrow you should rinse your mouth gently every three or four hours with salt water.Put about a quarter of a teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water.Continue this rinsing for several days.

  Don't be alarmed if there is some bleeding this morning. A little bleeding is normal following an extraction.I've put absorbent cotton over the extraction,and l will give you some to take home.Change the pads about a half hour after you get home.

  That's all you need to do.

  Call me anytime if you have a lot of bleeding or pain.And remember to apply ice right away.

  分析:

  从第一段中我们可以听到“l want to give you some words of advice”,后文中作者就会将他的建议一一说出,听者要有思想准备。第二段中,虽然没有"first"这样的字眼,但我们听到了“the most important thing”,即“首要的”;进而我们又听到了“secondly”,最后有“That's a11”作为文章的结尾。这样听下来,我们回忆起文章的脉络就十分清晰。

  例文2:

  A balanced diet contains proteins,which are composed of complex amino acids.There are 20 Types Of amino acides, consisting of about 16 percent of the body weight in a lean indiVidua1.A body needs all 20 to be healthy. Amino acids can be divided into two groups: essential and nonessential.There are 9 essential amino acids. These are the proteins that the body cannot reduce by itself,so a healthy individual must consume them. The 11 nonessential amino acids,on the other hand, are produced by the body. So it is not necessary to ingest them. Proteins are described as being either high—quality or low-quality, depending on how many of the 9 essential amino acids the food contains.High—quality proteins,typically found in animal meats,are proteins that have ample amounts of the essential amino acids.Since people who follow a strict vegetarian diet are ingesting only low-quality proteins,they must make sure that their diets contain a variety of proteins,in order to ensure that what is lacking in one food is available in another.This Process of selecting a variety of the essential proteins is called protein comple-mentation.Since an insufficient amount of protein in the diet can be crippling,and prolonged absences f proteins can cause death, it is essential that a vegetarian diet contain an ample amount of the essential proteins.

  分析:

  1.当我们听到“two groups”,就要把后面的两个名称在脑中记下来,因为下文很可能要分别介绍在这两组事物上各发生了什么事情:果然后文紧接着就是“9 essential”与“the 11 nonessential”是否由人体自身产生的结论。若是考生意识到了这一点,听时就会抓住这两个关键词。

  2.听到“this”,马上想到“原因”,而这一分句朗读完毕之后,就是所导致的“结果”了,考生要能通过分句间的短暂停顿来判断这一点,做到提前产生语感。

  3.英文句子上下的连贯性是任何时候都不能忽略的。文中斜体的“this”表明了这两句话不可分割的联系,听到这样的词表明:虽有停顿,考生脑海中的语义不能中断。而“this”的读音通常不会十分响亮,容易被考生忽略。

  例文3:

  Hello,everybody. In our session last week,we talked about symptoms of heart disease.Today,I would like to address something else about it.As heart disease continues to be the number-one killer in the United Stated,researehers have become increasingly interested in finding the potential risk factors that trigger heart attacks.High—fat diets and“life in the fast track" have long been known to contribute to the high incidence of heart failures.But according to new studies,the list of risk factors may be significantly longer and quite surprising.

  Heart failures,for example,appear to have seasonal and temporal patterns.A,higher percentage of heart attacks occur in cold weather,and more people experience heart failure on Monday than on any other day of the week.In addition,people are more susceptible to heart attacks in the first few hours after waking.Cardiologists first observed this morning phenomenon in the mid-1980,and have since discovered a number of possible causes.An early-morning F1SC in blood pressure,heart rate,and concentration of heart stimulating homones,plus a reduction of blood flow to the heart,may all lead to the higher incidence of heart attacks between the hours of 8:00 am and 10:00 am.

  In other studies,both birthdays and bachelorhood have been implicated as risk factors.Statistics reveal that heart attack rates increase significantly for both females and males in the few days immediately preceding and following their birthdays。And unmarried men are more at risk for heart attacks than their married counterparts.Though stress is thought to be linked in some way to all of the above risk factors,intense research continues in the hope of further understanding why and how heart failure is triggered.

  分析:

  1.当听到这个分句"heart disease continues to be the number-one killer in the United States",我们要根据所学语法知识,迅速将“as”的意义反映出来,表示“如同”、“既然”、还是“由于”,或是表示时间。然后根据后一分句的表述,可以确定这是一个因果意义的句子。如此训练多次,我们就可以越来越快地捕捉句意了。

  2. 在短文开始不久,往往会出现“but”,“however"之类的转折词,这是作者开始阐述个人观点的标志,听者一定要注意"But”之后的内容。下文读到的“for example”“in addition”都是对作者这个观点的具体解释,听者一定要能把这相距较远的句子从内涵上真正连贯起来,才能把握通篇。

  3."both"这个词虽小,瞬间就会读过去,但考生一定要有意识将它后面的被"and'隔开的两件事物记住,因为,“both…and”所起的作用就如同说“there are two things:one is…and the other…”。有了这个语感,我们在极短的听力朗读时间中才不会漏听信息。



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